IPA

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A

[a] a in French ami and German Mann
[ɑ] a in English father
[au] ou in English out
[æ] a in English act

B

[b] b in English boat

C

[ɕ] ch in German ich

D

[d] d-sound pronounced with the tip of the tongue closer to the teeth than d in English day
[ɖ] d-sound pronounced with the tip of the tongue more retroflex than d in English day
[dʒ] j in English jam

E

[e] é in French été, ee in German Schnee
[ḙ] e in English bet
[ə] a in English ago
[əu] ou in English soul
[ɛ] a in English bad but less open
[έ] a in English bat but less open
[ɛu] see [ɛ] and [ü]

F

[f] f in English fall

G

[g] g in English give

H

[h] h in English hand
[ɧ] sh-sound pronounced with protruded lips and with a wider passage for the air stream than in English

I

[i] ee in English bee
[ɪ] i in English bit, but somewhat higher

J

[j] y in English yes
[ʝ] y-sound pronounced with the tip of the tongue closer to the teeth than y in English yes

K

[k] k in English keep

L

[l] l-sound pronounced with the tip of the tongue closer to the teeth than l in English like
[ɭ] l-sound pronounced with the tip of the tongue more retroflex than l in English like

M

[m] m in English mid

N

[n] n-sound pronounced with the tip of the tongue closer to the teeth than n in English not
[ɳ] n-sound pronounced with the tip of the tongue more retroflex than n in English tone
[ŋ] ng in English sing

O

[o] eau in French beau, oh in German Kohl
[ɔ] oa in English broad and o in French bonne
[ɵ] rounded central vowel; the closest equivalents are a in English ago and e in French me
[ø] long mid-high rounded front vowel, similar to eu in French peu and ö in German schön
[ö] short mid-high rounded front vowel, somewhat lowered in comparison to [ø]
[œ] mid-low rounded front vowel, similar to eu in French peur

P

[p] p in English pipe

R

[r] retroflex trill or fricative (front r-sound)

S

[s] s in English sun
[ʂ] sh-sound pronounced with retroflex tongue tip
[ɧ] sh-sound pronounced with protruded lips and with a wider passage for the air stream than in English

T

[t] t-sound pronounced with the tip of the tongue closer to the teeth than t in English tell
[ʈ] t-sound pronounced with the tip of the tongue more retroflex the t in English tell

U

[ɷ] o in English do
[ʊ] oo in English look
[ʉ] long mid-high front vowel pronounced with small lip opening without protrusion, similar to German ü in grün
[ü] short mid-high front vowel pronounced with small lip opening without protrusion, similar to German ü in fünf

V

[v] v in English veal

W

[w] w in English will

X

[x] ch in German Bach

Y

[y] long high rounded front vowel, similar to French u in tu, German ü in grün but higher and more rounded
[ʏ] shourt high rounded front vowel, somewhat lowered in comparison to [y]

Z

[z] z in English zero
[ʒ] s in English measure

.:'

[:] length; the sound denoted by the preceding symbol is long
[ˑ] half-length; the sound denoted by the preceding symbol is half-long
['] the following syllable carries main stress in a name with acute tonal accent
[‘] the following syllable carries main stress in a name with grave tonal accent
[ˎ] the following syllable carries secondary stress in a compound name
[,] the following syllable carries tertiary (weak) stress
[~] juncture between two elements in a compound name